What is Router and how does it work?

what is router and how does it work

Friends, we have two biggest means of running internet, first of which internet connectivity of SIM and second internet connectivity from WIFI router. If we run the SIM by putting it in the mobile, then wherever we are, we can run the internet. But the connectivity area of ​​the WIFI router is fixed.

By the way, those who run internet from SIM are willing to run internet by connecting to WIFI router. But do you know what a router is and how it works.

What is Router?

Router is a small electronic device that connects many computer networks through a wired or wireless connection. Routers are the software in the device that connects one computer network to another computer network or connects a computer network to the Internet. Therefore the position of the route is between your modem and computer.

To connect the network to the Internet, the Route must be connected to the modem. That’s why most routers have a specific Ethernet port that is designed to connect to the Ethernet port of a cable or DSL modem.

How does Router work?

When a packet arrives near the router, the router, after checking the address of the destination network and the internal routing table, decides to which port or network the packet is to be forwarded. Router is a Layer 3 network device and it operates at the network layer of the OSI model.

The embedded operating system (O/S) is stored in the memory of the router, which takes very little storage space as compared to other OS. By the way, router is the process of managing the flow of data between network segments and between hosts or routers. To manage this routing, the router manages a table in which the information of other routers of the network is stored.

What are the types of Router?

Although there are many types of routers in the market, but two are the most prominent.

1.Broadband Routers

These routers can be used to connect computer networks to other networks or to connect to the Internet.

2.Wireless Routers

These routers create a wireless signal in your home or office. Therefore any PC, laptop or smartphone within range of the wireless router can connect to it and use your internet. To secure your wireless router, you need to protect your Wi-Fi with a strong password.

Some Other Types of Routers

Edge Router

This type of router is placed on the side of the ISP (Internet Service Provider). Configure external protocols such as BGP (Boarder Gateway Protocol) with another ISP’s BGP.

Subscriber Edge Router

Subscriber comes under the Edge Router end user (Enterprise) organization. It is configured to broadcast external BGP as the provider’s AS

Inter Provider Border Router

Such Routers are taken to connect ISPs together. Like Airtel with Reliance and Vodafone with Jio. It maintains the BGP session.

Core Router

The router that works like the backbone of the LAN network is called Core Router. This is to connect the different Distributed Routers together. Meaning if there is a company which will have many routers which will be in different locations. Core Router is used to connect all these routers together. Its name is also Core for this reason.

Router Components

It is a specialized computer. It also has different parts. Whose names are given below.

  1. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  2. Flash memory
  3. Non-Volatile RAM
  4. RAM
  5. Network Interfaces
  6. Console

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

CPU which is a brain, it runs special software named os. There are some OS like Junos which run Juniper Routers and Cisco IOS runs Cisco Routers. This operating system manages all the components of all the routers.

Flash Memory

Every electronic device requires memory in which the operating system is stored. Compare Flash memory with computer, then it is a hard disk only. This Flash memory contains Routing Algorithm, Routing Protocol, Routing Table Store.

Non-Volatile RAM

You must have understood from its name that it is Memory Permanent. Inside it is the back up and startup Version Store of the Operating System. Whenever the router boots, programs are loaded from this memory itself.


Whenever the router is on, then the operating system is loaded into RAM. After this the Router determines the Routes. From other Routers it sees Routes Information (via RIP RIP (v1 and v2), OSPF, EIGRP, IS-IS or BGP). ARP tables, routing tables, routing metrics and other data are stored inside RAM. ARP tables, routing tables, routing metrics With the help of these, Packet Forwarding Process Speed ​​is done.

Network Interfaces

There are always many network interfaces in routers. There are many drivers in the operating system. With the help of these drivers, the routers get to know in which port which network’s WIRE is connected. There is the ability to learn Routes from other Routers and the packet is transmitted on the correct route.


All the work of managing and configuring the router is done in the console itself. Configuration and troubleshooting commands are given from the console.

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